The recent escalation of violence in Gaza has been followed up by increase in anti-Semitic sentiment across Europe. Attacks on Synagogues have become frequent and there have been worrying reports anti-Semitic slogans chanted at demonstrations. Causal explanations for this outburst vary. One line of argument runs that anti-Semitism is inherently coupled with anti-Zionism, and that emotive media coverage helps only to fan the flames. Alongside the tune of sensationalist media, those on both sides of the dispute over Gaza only feed the fire further by presenting narratives of European anti-Semitism, which are influenced largely by either moral or political concerns.